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  3. Jeffrey Roberts

    IBS-related X tweets (formerly called Twitter)

    Good news! We now have X tweets again (formerly called Twitter) being posted automatically into our X forum.
  4. Min

    Persistent gas

    Thank you for the suggestion about tea. I don't care for peppermint; it dries my mouth out too much. But ginger and fennel are supposed to be good for IBS. There's a ginger-fennel tea I like, and I'll try it the next time I'm plagued by this problem.
  5. Hi everybody, 4 years ago, out of nowhere a constant diarrhea started and it would happen 4-5 times a day. At first, I didn’t really pay attention to it. It was a soft stool and it felt good to empty out my bowels after meals. Then the secondary problem began which was anal fissure (tear) from constant bowel movements. 2 surgeries and bunch of meds later, my problem continued. I have given up on any successful treatment or even diagnosis in US. Countless doctor appointments brought nothing but more frustration. I felt so helpless and sick. I finally decided to seek treatment overseas at my homeland. I’m currently seeing a colorectal surgeon and also a professor who specializes in functional medicine. Second one had me done a comprehensive blood work to check literally everything even cardiovascular, endocrinology, rheumatology, celiac, vitamins etc etc. She also had me do a SIBO test (breathing test to check for methane gas) We will go over the results on Monday but from what I can tell it’s negative. Blood work is normal as well. She did prescribe me 3 meds in the meantime. I’m supposed to see her until I go back to US in 2 weeks. New RX are melatonin (because it’s antioxidant not because of sleep problems) Ashawaganda twice a day and also L-Theanin twice a day. Ironically, these calmed my intestines for the past few days and they do not feel like anti depressants. In the past I have also used meds called Kreon and Dicetel which were also helpful but I’m trying to get to a point not to take any more pills. I also stopped taking Hyoscamine which is a pill that slows down digestion. I stopped because Ashawaganda and L-T seem to work for now. My second dr also wants me to work with a dietitian. In the past, I kept a food diary and found out I have lactose intolerance for dairy products as well as some other food types. I avoid these foods now. Doctors in US are not really familiar with IBS and don’t really know what to do in my opinion. Medicine is more advanced in Europe. I had to ask my PcP in US to prescribe me Hyoscomain. She had no idea this was used for treatment. My biggest suggestion to everyone is to research. A lot. Be your own advocate and get 2nd opinions. i will post an update once i finish treatment here. Best luck to everyone
  6. HKK

    Persistent gas

    I’m in the same situation. I constantly have gas and constantly feel bloated. I’m currently trying peppermint tea. It seems to calm it down a little
  7. Gastroenterology. 2024 Feb 22:S0016-5085(24)00170-7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2024.02.008. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The efficacy of a low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is well established. After the elimination period, a reintroduction phase aims to identify triggers. We studied the impact of a blinded reintroduction using FODMAP-powders to objectively identify triggers and evaluated the effect on symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial co-morbidities. METHODS: Responders to a 6-week low-FODMAP diet, defined by a drop in IBS-symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) compared to baseline, entered a 9-week blinded randomized reintroduction phase with 6 FODMAP powders (fructans, fructose, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol) or control (glucose). A rise in IBS-SSS (≥50 points) defined a FODMAP-trigger. Patients completed daily symptom diaries and questionnaires for QoL and psychosocial co-morbidities. RESULTS: In 117 recruited IBS patients, IBS-SSS improved significantly after the elimination period compared to baseline (150±116 vs 301±97, P < .0001, 80% responders). Symptom recurrence was triggered in 85% of the FODMAP powders, by an average of 2.5±2 FODMAPs/patient. The most prevalent triggers were fructans (56%) and mannitol (54%), followed by galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, fructose, sorbitol, and glucose (respectively 35%, 28%, 27%, 23%, and 26%) with a significant increase in abdominal pain at day 1 for sorbitol/mannitol, day 2 for fructans/galacto-oligosaccharides and day 3 for lactose. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the significant benefit of the low-FODMAP diet in tertiary care IBS. A blinded reintroduction revealed a personalized pattern of symptom recurrence, with fructans and mannitol as the most prevalent, and allows the most objective identification of individual FODMAP-triggers; Clinicaltrial.gov number: NCT04373304. PMID:38401741 | DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2024.02.008 View the full article
  8. Sci Rep. 2024 Feb 24;14(1):4553. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-55363-4. ABSTRACT To investigate the prevalence, types, and risk factors of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs) in Hainan Province, China, in order to provide insights for future prevention and treatment strategies. A questionnaire survey was conducted from July 2022 to May 2023, using stratified sampling to sample local residents in five cities (20 townships) in Hainan Province. Out of 2057 local residents surveyed, 659 individuals (32.0%) reported experiencing at least one FGID. The most prevalent FGIDs were functional dyspepsia (FD) (10.7%), functional constipation (FC) (9.3%), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (6.8%), functional bloating (2.2%), belching disorder (2.2%), functional diarrhea (FDr) (1.5%), functional heartburn (1.5%), and fecal incontinence (0.98%). The study revealed significant associations between FGIDs and factors such as age, sleep quality, anxiety, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the consumption of pickled food (P < 0.05). Older age, poor sleep quality, anxiety, and the consumption of pickled food were identified as independent risk factors for the prevalence of FGIDs (P < 0.05). In Hainan Province, the overall prevalence of FGIDs was found to be 32.0%, with higher prevalences of FC and FD. Older age, poor sleep quality, anxiety, and the consumption of pickled food were identified as risk factors for FGIDs. PMID:38402323 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-55363-4 View the full article
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  10. Gastroenterology. 2024 Mar;166(3):409-434. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2024.01.008. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal microbiota-based therapies include conventional fecal microbiota transplant and US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies, fecal microbiota live-jslm and fecal microbiota spores live-brpk. The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) developed this guideline to provide recommendations on the use of fecal microbiota-based therapies in adults with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection; severe to fulminant C difficile infection; inflammatory bowel diseases, including pouchitis; and irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: The guideline was developed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) framework to prioritize clinical questions, identify patient-centered outcomes, and conduct an evidence synthesis. The guideline panel used the Evidence-to-Decision framework to develop recommendations for the use of fecal microbiota-based therapies in the specified gastrointestinal conditions and provided implementation considerations for clinical practice. RESULTS: The guideline panel made 7 recommendations. In immunocompetent adults with recurrent C difficile infection, the AGA suggests select use of fecal microbiota-based therapies on completion of standard of care antibiotics to prevent recurrence. In mildly or moderately immunocompromised adults with recurrent C difficile infection, the AGA suggests select use of conventional fecal microbiota transplant. In severely immunocompromised adults, the AGA suggests against the use of any fecal microbiota-based therapies to prevent recurrent C difficile. In adults hospitalized with severe or fulminant C difficile not responding to standard of care antibiotics, the AGA suggests select use of conventional fecal microbiota transplant. The AGA suggests against the use of conventional fecal microbiota transplant as treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome, except in the context of clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Fecal microbiota-based therapies are effective therapy to prevent recurrent C difficile in select patients. Conventional fecal microbiota transplant is an adjuvant treatment for select adults hospitalized with severe or fulminant C difficile infection not responding to standard of care antibiotics. Fecal microbiota transplant cannot yet be recommended in other gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:38395525 | DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2024.01.008 View the full article
  11. I used to be a petite model. And the pressure to be thin was more than any teenager could ever bare. I’ll never forget when one of my model friends turned me on too laxatives. I did well on them for around 3 years before they no longer worked and “not eating/binging and throwing up” in my sick, immature, mind was the faster way to get thin. I never imagined that ten years later, I’d quit modeling, get help for my eating disorders and get better. I beat not only my eating disorders, but the mental aspect of the disorder. And finally started to accept my body as I was, a curvy, short, Italian girl. It was so nice to not have to read labels and no longer watch everybody else eat while I pretended “i wasn’t feeling well.” Never imagining that once I healed from one disorder, I’d develop another. I am 37 years old and a proud single mother of a beautiful 8.5 year old little girl. That watched her mom go from a healthy size 10 in jeans, to a size 3-5. Every-time I eat something, I’m running to the bathroom before I’m even finished. Nothing is helping. I’m mad. I’m mad because I feel like “why me? Why is this is happening to me? Is this my punishment for hurting my body when I was younger?” I watch people that I love sit and eat whatever they want. Never running to the bathroom like me, and I can’t help but feel a sense of envy. Of course I’d never want anyone in the world to ever experince this ever! But I can’t stop these feelings of anger. This disease is changing me, and I don’t know how to stop these feelings of anger. Has anybody else ever felt this way? How did you overcome it? I feel so alone and misunderstood. I know I sound like a child right now, but it’s actually my deepest, rawest feelings. And I need advice. Thank you all, and I hope the best for each and every one of you that is reading this. Because ibs, as a hole, is no joke. And I don’t think anybody ever understands that fully until they start living it.
  12. I hope this community can shed some light on a topic I've been delving into lately. I've been dealing with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and have come across information about the potential benefits of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) in managing digestive issues. I'm curious to know if anyone here has tried incorporating HMOs into their IBS management plan and if you've noticed any positive effects. If you've found success with HMOs, I'd love to know which products or sources you recommend. On the flip side, if you've encountered challenges or haven't noticed any improvement, I'm still keen to hear your perspective. Additionally, any tips on dosage, duration, or factors to consider when incorporating HMOs into an IBS management strategy would be greatly appreciated. I'm navigating this journey and value the insights of those who have firsthand experience. Thanks a bunch for your time and any information you can share!
  13. Alex.m

    Rapid heartbeat & IBS

    Hi I have to say your symptoms are similar to mine , I’ve had IBS-C and Alternating bouts of IBS-D and the nausea and rapid heart beat during a flare is anxiety with me because I have panic attacks also and during a flare I’m not sure how bad the flare is going to be , and I worry I’ll be late for work or any other event so it causes great anxiety and panic , I’m so sorry your dealing with this ,it does definitely interfere with your quality of life . I’m now taking I-Bguard and eating oatmeal everyday and it’s helped a lot and trying not to stress. Stressful situations will definitely add to the flares I pray this helps you to know you’re not alone with this condition.
  14. CinPhloro Pharma, a CinRx Portfolio Company, Dosed First Participant in Phase 2 enviva Study of CIN-103 for IBS-D Business Wire CinPhloro Pharma, a CinRx Portfolio Company, Dosed First Participant in Phase 2 enviva Study of CIN-103 for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Predominant Diarrhea (IBS-D) CIN-103 is a novel formulation of phloroglucinol designed to sustain exposure, maintain efficacy and reduce dosing frequency The enviva study will evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of CIN-103 in 450 adults with IBS-D February 22, 2024 11:56 AM Eastern Standard Time CINCINNATI--(BUSINESS WIRE)--CinPhloro Pharma, a CinRx portfolio company advancing CIN-103 as a new approach for the chronic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D), today announced the first clinical trial participant has been dosed in its Phase 2 enviva study. CIN-103, a novel formulation of phloroglucinol intended for long-term use, is a non-opioid based small molecule designed to address multiple IBS-D action points including motility, secretion, pain, spasms and inflammation. “IBS-D is a complex condition impacting the daily lives of more than 16 million people in the United States alone with no approved medicines for long-term treatment,” said Jon Isaacsohn, M.D., Founder and Chief Executive Officer at CinRx Pharma. “CIN-103 is an improved formulation and delivery of phloroglucinol, which is an approved product in select countries outside of the U.S. for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The enhanced pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of CIN-103 combine immediate-release and delayed-release processes for a proprietary pulsatile delivery offering sustained drug exposures with less frequent dosing while maintaining efficacy over time.” “CIN-103 has great potential to address an unmet medical need for IBS-D and provide physicians and patients with an improved therapeutic option for long-term management of this multifactorial condition,” said Darren Brenner, M.D., Professor of Gastroenterology Medicine & Surgery at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. “I am encouraged by early studies of CIN-103 demonstrating a superior PK profile and absence of anticholinergic side effects compared to other antispasmodics. Previous investigations of antispasmodics available in the U.S. suffer from outdated data and methodological limitations. Ongoing research involving CIN-103 holds promise for improving global symptoms in patients with IBS-D.” About the enviva Study: The Phase 2 enviva study (NCT06153420) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of multiple dose strengths of CIN-103 in adults with IBS-D over 12 weeks of treatment. The study endpoints include patients’ clinical response relative to placebo on abdominal pain and stool consistency (as a composite responder). The trial aims to enroll 450 participants. More information can be found at www.envivastudy.com. About CinPhloro Pharma: CinPhloro Pharma, a CinRx portfolio company, is dedicated to developing the first safe, effective and long-term treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D). CinPhloro’s CIN-103 is a novel formulation of phloroglucinol, a small molecule available in certain countries for symptomatic relief of functional GI disorders. CIN-103 was modified to address the shortcomings of phloroglucinol, including its short half-life, and to target multiple IBS-D action points, including motility, secretion, pain, spasms and inflammation. About CinRx Pharma: CinRx Pharma is a biotech company advancing a diverse portfolio of high-impact medicines through clinical development with a unique hub-and-spoke business model. CinRx’s approach combines financing with the efficient progression of therapeutic candidates within its portfolio, each managed by CinRx’s central infrastructure and operating team. Current CinCos address areas of high unmet medical need including metabolic, gastrointestinal, and oncology. Differentiated by an asset selection process agnostic to therapeutic area, a strategic CRO partnership, and insights from thousands of development programs, CinRx identifies, funds and accelerates promising drugs with the potential to have the highest impact on patients’ quality of life. CinRx Pharma is headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio. For more information, please visit www.CinRx.com or follow the company on X and LinkedIn. Contacts Media Contact: Cassidy McClain Account Director, Communications [email protected] CinRx Pharma Contact: Jason Westerheide Executive Director, Business Development [email protected] View the full article
  15. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2024 Feb 12;55:101841. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2024.101841. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypnotherapy continues to be a controversial practice in medicine. It is surrounded by myth and misuses that instill doubts about its legitimacy and usefulness. PURPOSE: In this paper, we will distinguish pseudoscientific claims from evidence-based uses of hypnotherapy. RESULTS: The use and acceptability of hypnotherapy has varied over history. Pseudoscientific uses, based on outdated theories that it can access the unconscious mind, have delegitimized hypnotherapy. Modern theories that hypnosis uses common social, emotional, and cognitive processes combined with evidence-based methods have re-established the use of hypnotherapy in many physical and mental health disorders and symptoms. Currently it is a widely accepted and recommended treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, with evidence building for many other applications. CONCLUSION: Hypnotherapy, as a pseudoscience, can become unethical and cause distress for the patient and their families. Hypnotherapy, as an evidence-based treatment, can be used as a powerful tool to treat physical and psychological symptoms related to medical ailments. PMID:38387324 | DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2024.101841 View the full article
  16. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.1038/s41575-024-00893-5. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and food additives have become ubiquitous components of the modern human diet. There is increasing evidence of an association between diets rich in UPFs and gut disease, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and irritable bowel syndrome. Food additives are added to many UPFs and have themselves been shown to affect gut health. For example, evidence shows that some emulsifiers, sweeteners, colours, and microparticles and nanoparticles have effects on a range of outcomes, including the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation. Broadly speaking, evidence for the effect of UPFs on gut disease comes from observational epidemiological studies, whereas, by contrast, evidence for the effect of food additives comes largely from preclinical studies conducted in vitro or in animal models. Fewer studies have investigated the effect of UPFs or food additives on gut health and disease in human intervention studies. Hence, the aim of this article is to critically review the evidence for the effects of UPF and food additives on gut health and disease and to discuss the clinical application of these findings. PMID:38388570 | DOI:10.1038/s41575-024-00893-5 View the full article
  17. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.15403/jgld-5005. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is frequently described as underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. The treatment for EPI is pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT), which is costly, and provider confidence in prescribing may be one barrier to reducing undertreatment. The lack of interchangeability studies for prescription PERT and/or lack of efficacy studies of over-the-counter enzyme options may be another barrier. This paper reviewed the prevalence of EPI in the general population and in co-conditions. Prevalence of EPI in the general population is commonly estimated around 10-20%, and further research is needed to evaluate EPI across all age groups and to better understand in which age group EPI becomes more prevalent, as an age effect is often seen in EPI prevalence studies. EPI is perceived to be highly correlated with certain co-conditions, and the majority (~65%) of EPI literature is related to a co-condition such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, post-surgery, cancer, or diabetes. It can be estimated that 85% of literature in identified co-conditions, or 56% of total EPI literature, is on rarer co-conditions which only represent <1% of EPI overall. In contrast, there is very little research and literature on EPI in the general population. The highest absolute rates of EPI with co-conditions are likely diabetes and possibly irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, yet they are among the least commonly researched in co-condition and EPI studies. A lack of research on EPI in the general population and in the more common co-conditions may be contributing to the rates of underdiagnosis and underscreening, as well as undertreatment for those with low fecal elastase-1 levels. PMID:38386889 | DOI:10.15403/jgld-5005 View the full article
  18. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.15403/jgld-5018. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) lacks a clear understanding of the disease's pathogenesis and effective treatments thus producing frustration among providers and patients, leading to the stigmatization of the disease and the patients with the syndrome. A literature search was performed to make a hermeneutical review on empathic patient-provider communication and IBS. The relationship is defined by partners being dependent on one another in the pursuit of obtaining good outcomes. It is a unique interaction depending not only on the individual qualities of each partner but also on the specific patterns of the patient-physician synergy. Empathy is crucial for any relationship. It helps to recognize the other as the other of myself, a person like me. Meanwhile, stigmatization results from identifying and labelling human differences and stereotyping persons who are linked to undesirable characteristics. IBS is at high risk of stigmatization in various contexts and settings including health care, causing patients and physicians misconceptions and distress, which in turn leads to the worsening of the disease in patients and burnout in physicians. Narrative-based medicine helps create a holistic perspective of a patient's problems and health, thus providing a tool for an empathic doctor-patient relationship that fosters mutual understanding and helps patients with IBS make sense of symptoms, increases their ability to manage their IBS in a psychologically flexible manner, subsequently helping them maintain their quality of life. PMID:38386892 | DOI:10.15403/jgld-5018 View the full article
  19. Biol Futur. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s42977-024-00205-7. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Functional visceral problems are frequently present nowadays in the medical practice probably due to the significant mental and emotional load on people. Although physicians and psychophysiologists are active on the field, still we are far from a complete knowledge, despite the fact that scientists like the Hungarian Professor György Ádám already had initiated a new approach called visceral psychophysiology already a long time ago. In this article, we commemorate Professor Ádám by analyzing one of the most frequent functional disorders, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), calling psychophysiology for help. First, we try to give a definition, then show the general descriptions and characteristics of IBS. Factors like stress, gender, and gastrointestinal pain are followed by the potential role of the immune system and the neuronal factors as well as the supposed brain mechanisms. We hope that this overview of the IBS-history would show how significant scientists can be decisive in certain fields of the science and practice. PMID:38386191 | DOI:10.1007/s42977-024-00205-7 View the full article
  20. Front Microbiol. 2024 Feb 7;14:1268492. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1268492. eCollection 2023. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies have revealed a potential link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the causal relationship between them remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate whether H. pylori infection is causally associated with IBS. METHOD: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using the inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted mode, weighted median and MR-Egger methods was performed. We used the publicly available summary statistics data sets of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for H. pylori infection in individuals of European descent (case = 1,058, control = 3,625) as the exposure and a GWAS for non-cancer illness code self-reported: IBS (case = 10,939, control = 451,994) as the outcome. RESULTS: We selected 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms at genome-wide significance from GWASs on H. pylori infection as the instrumental variables. The IVW, weighted mode, weighted median and MR-Egger methods all provided consistent evidence that suggests a lack of causal association between H. pylori and IBS. MR-Egger regression revealed that directional pleiotropy was unlikely to be biasing the result (intercept = -1e-04; P = 0.831). Cochran's Q-test and the funnel plot indicated no evidence of heterogeneity and asymmetry, indicating no directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: The results of MR analysis support that H. pylori infection may not be causally associated with an increased risk of IBS. PMID:38384720 | PMC:PMC10879563 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2023.1268492 View the full article
  21. Association of healthy lifestyle behaviours with incident irritable bowel syndrome: a large population-based prospective study The BMJ Abstract Objectives To evaluate the association between healthy lifestyle behaviours and the incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting The UK Biobank. Participants 64 268 adults aged 37 to 73 years who had no IBS diagnosis at baseline were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and followed up to 2022. Main exposure The five healthy lifestyle behaviours studied were never smoking, optimal sleep, high level of vigorous physical activity, high dietary quality and moderate alcohol intake. Main outcome measure The incidence of IBS. Results During a mean follow-up of 12.6 years, 961 (1.5%) incident IBS cases were recorded. Among the 64 268 participants (mean age 55.9 years, 35 342 (55.0%) female, 7604 (11.8%) reported none of the five healthy lifestyle behaviours, 20 662 (32.1%) reported 1 behaviour, 21 901 (34.1%) reported 2 behaviours and 14 101 (21.9%) reported 3 to 5 behaviours at baseline. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios associated with having 1, 2 and 3 to 5 behaviours for IBS incidence were 0.79 (95% confidence intervals 0.65 to 0.96), 0.64 (0.53 to 0.78) and 0.58 (0.46 to 0.72), respectively (P for trend <0.001). Never smoking (0.86, 0.76 to 0.98, P=0.02), high level of vigorous physical activity (0.83, 0.73 to 0.95, P=0.006) and optimal sleep (0.73, 0.60 to 0.88, P=0.001) demonstrated significant independent inverse associations with IBS incidence. No significant interactions were observed between these associations and age, sex, employment status, geographic location, gastrointestinal infection, endometriosis, family history of IBS or lifestyle behaviours. Conclusions Adhering to a higher number of healthy lifestyle behaviours is significantly associated with a lower incidence of IBS in the general population. Our findings suggest the potential of lifestyle modifications as a primary prevention strategy for IBS. View the full article
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