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Showing topics posted by Health Reporter and posted in for the last 365 days.

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  1. Yesterday
  2. RT @MASTprogram: Closing out the 5th #GutMicrobiome conference with .@MarkPimentelMD who shares the up-and-coming advancements in microbiome sampling, testing and treatment. And the failures we’ve seen this year. (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  3. RT @robinberlinrd: .@AliRezaieMD discusses symptoms associated with #SIBO. Diagnosis with Lactulose Breath test and treatment with antibiotics. Three Pillars: Diagnose, Treat, follow up with Low Fermentation Diet. #GutMicrobiome (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  4. Last week
  5. Related Articles Elucidating the putative link between prefrontal neurotransmission, functional connectivity, and affective symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 19;9(1):13590 Authors: Icenhour A, Tapper S, Bednarska O, Witt ST, Tisell A, Lundberg P, Elsenbruch S, Walter S Abstract Altered neural mechanisms are well-acknowledged in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a disorder of brain-gut-communication highly comorbid with anxiety and depression. As a key hub in corticolimbic inhibition, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) may be involved in disturbed emotion regulation in IBS. However, aberrant mPFC excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission potentially contributing to psychological symptoms in IBS remains unknown. Using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qMRS), we compared mPFC glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) concentrations in 64 women with IBS and 32 age-matched healthy women (HCs) and investigated their association with anxiety and depression in correlational and subgroup analyses. Applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored whether altered neurotransmission was paralleled by aberrant mPFC resting-state functional connectivity (FC). IBS patients did not differ from HCs with respect to mPFC GABA+ or Glx levels. Anxiety was positively associated with mPFC GABA+ concentrations in IBS, whereas Glx was unrelated to psychological or gastrointestinal symptoms. Subgroup comparisons of patients with high or low anxiety symptom severity and HCs revealed increased GABA+ in patients with high symptom severity, and lower mPFC FC with adjacent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a crucial region of emotion modulation. Our findings provide novel evidence that altered prefrontal inhibitory neurotransmission may be linked to anxiety in IBS. PMID: 31537890 [PubMed - in process] View the full article
  6. FDA approves new packaging limits for loperamide HealioThe FDA has approved new package size and type limits for the over-the-counter, brand-name tablet and capsule forms of loperamide, a diarrhea drug, ... View the full article
  7. Electrocolonography: Non-invasive detection of colonic cyclic motor activity from multielectrode body surface recordings. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Erickson JC, Bruce LE, Taylor A, Richman J, Higgins C, Wells CI, O'Grady G Abstract OBJECTIVE: This work validates a novel non-invasive method to identify periods of cyclic motor activity in the colon using multichannel skin-surface electrical recordings on the lower abdominal region, termed electrocolonography (EColG). METHODS: EColG recordings were made from 21 human subjects during a 3 hr meal-response study. A signal processing pipeline based on Continuous Wavelet Transform time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the spectral power in the colonic frequency band ( ≈ 2-6 cycles per minute; cpm) during the fasted and fed states. RESULTS: EColG identified a substantial 7.4 ± 3.5 × maximum transient increase in motor activity in the fed state versus the fasted state, as well as a 38.3 ± 16.7% sustained spectral power increase in the colonic frequency band. The dominant frequency was 3.61 ± 0.49 cpm, with activity localized primarily in the infraumbilical region near the (recto-)sigmoid colon segments. CONCLUSION: The colonic meal-responses identified with EColG were closely concordant with rectosigmoid motor activity previously characterized by intracolonic high-resolution manometry. This study is the first to demonstrate that body surface electrical recordings can properly identify rhythmic colonic activity stimulated by food intake. SIGNIFICANCE: The new EColG technique is inexpensive, portable, and presents the opportunity for reliably measuring colonic motility by noninvasive means. We anticipate that EColG could be applied to monitor the progression of postoperative ileus, and more precisely diagnose abnormal colonic motor patterns in patients suffering from common functional disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID: 31535980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
  8. Activation of pruritogenic TGR5, MRGPRA3, and MRGPRC11 on colon-innervating afferents induces visceral hypersensitivity. JCI Insight. 2019 Sep 19;: Authors: Castro J, Harrington AM, Lieu T, Garcia-Caraballo S, Maddern J, Schober G, O'Donnell T, Grundy L, Lumsden AL, Miller PE, Ghetti A, Steinhoff MS, Poole DP, Dong X, Chang L, Bunnett NW, Brierley SM Abstract Itch induces scratching that removes irritants from the skin, whereas pain initiates withdrawal or avoidance of tissue damage. Whilst pain arises from both the skin and viscera, we investigated whether pruritogenic irritant mechanisms also function within visceral pathways. We show that subsets of colon-innervating sensory neurons in mice express, either individually or in combination, the pruritogenic receptors Tgr5 and the Mas-gene-related G protein-coupled receptors, Mrgpra3 and Mrgpra11. Agonists of these receptors activated subsets of colonic sensory neurons and evoked colonic afferent mechanical hypersensitivity via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism. In vivo intra-colonic administration of individual TGR5, MRGPRA3, or MRGPRC11 agonists induced pronounced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Co-administration of these agonists as an 'itch cocktail' augmented hypersensitivity to colorectal distension and changed mouse behaviour. These irritant mechanisms were maintained and enhanced in a model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity relevant to irritable bowel syndrome. Neurons from human dorsal root ganglia also expressed TGR5 as well as the human ortholog MRGPRX1 and showed increased responsiveness to pruritogenic agonists in pathological states. These data support the existence of an irritant-sensing system in the colon that is a visceral representation of the itch pathways found in skin, thereby contributing to sensory disturbances accompanying common intestinal disorders. PMID: 31536477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
  9. Anxiety and nausea: What is the link? Medical News TodayAnxiety can cause a range of physical symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, are particularly common. Discover the link between anxiety and ... View the full article
  10. RT @FodyFoods: Tune in to our first ever #IGTV episode with @KateScarlata_RD where she explains a FODMAP Gentle Diet, term coined by @monashfodmap. https://pos.li/2d9l4m #FodyFactFridays #FodyFactFridayswithKateScarlata (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  11. 14 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: irritable bowel syndrome These pubmed results were generated on 2019/09/19 PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. View the full article
  12. 14 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: irritable bowel syndrome These pubmed results were generated on 2019/09/19 PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. View the full article
  13. Our annual course FOOD: main course to digestive health starts friday!! From 70 delegates in 2016 to 200 this year! @umichmedicine (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  14. Obesity linked with chronic diarrhea HealioPatients with obesity are at greater risk for chronic diarrhea, and the association grew stronger as BMI increased, according to the results of a nationally ... View the full article
  15. The Link Between The Gut, Food Allergies and IBS Longevity LIVEWe are what we eat – if there's one thing you need to understand about nutrition and food allergies, it's this. In this day and age, we face a big increase in ... View the full article
  16. IBS med Zelnorm relaunches more than a decade after disastrous recall—does it have a shot? FiercePharmaZelnorm was a steady seller for Novartis before cardiovascular red flags led to the IBS med's collapse. Now—more than a decade after its recall and with new ... View the full article
  17. Related Articles Evaluation of Physiological, Psychological, and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Premature Hair Graying. Int J Trichology. 2019 Jul-Aug;11(4):153-158 Authors: Thompson KG, Marchitto MC, Ly BCK, Chien AL Abstract Background: Canities, or hair graying, is believed to be driven by the cytotoxic effect of reactive oxygen species on follicular melanocytes, thus raising the concern that premature hair graying (PHG) may represent an outward sign of systemic oxidative stress. Objective: This study aimed to identify the physiological, psychological, and lifestyle factors associated with PHG (defined as graying at age ≤30 years) in men and women. Materials and Methods: Data from 467 participants (female = 354 and male = 113; age: 18-77 years) were collected and analyzed, including demographic information, medical history, family history, supplement intake, and lifestyle factors. Results: PHG was found to be significantly associated with a history of PHG in the mother, P<0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 3.165; father, P<0.001, OR = 5.166; maternal grandparent, P= 0.002, OR = 2.442; paternal grandparent, P= 0.007, OR = 2.369; and siblings, P<0.001, OR = 3.125. PHG was significantly associated with iron deficiency (P = 0.026, OR = 1.751) and family history of depression (P = 0.012, OR = 1.603), while herpes simplex virus infection (P = 0.004, OR = 0.367) and smoking history (P = 0.003) demonstrated significant negative associations. In Caucasians only (n = 306), in addition to these trends, irritable bowel syndrome was also significantly associated with PHG (P = 0.010, OR = 2.753). In Asians only (n = 75), history of heart disease in a first-degree relative (P = 0.038) was significantly associated with PHG. Limitations: As a survey study, the findings may be subject to recall bias. Conclusions: Important associations exist between PHG and family history of PHG, psychiatric history, supplement use, and vitamin deficiencies, providing insight into the pathophysiology and potential comorbidities of PHG. PMID: 31523106 [PubMed] View the full article
  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy could lead to long-term benefits for IBS Mental DailyIn a past study by researchers at the University of Southampton, they demonstrated how patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may find relief of ... View the full article
  19. A colostomy bag collects fecal waste from the digestive tract after a person has a colostomy. Learn more about the different types and life with a colostomy bag here. View the full article
  20. RT @drjshapiro: #IBS #ACG ⁦@AmCollegeGastro⁩ Love this online patient checklist for prior IBS treatments. So many doctors are recreating the wheel, and it’s new and here for the taking. I’m taking it! ⁦@bcm_gihep⁩ (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  21. Earlier
  22. RT @DrPalssonUNC: @KateScarlata_RD And for finding licensed health professionals offering #hypnosis treatment of other psychological and physical health problems, you can often find a local therapist via the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (@Hypnosis_ASCH) therapist finder page: https://www.asch.net/Public/MemberReferralSearch.aspx (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  23. Beth @DrPalssonUNC has a listing of practitioners that offer hypnosis for IBS: http://ibshypnosis.com/IBSclinicians.html https://twitter.com/ggliving/status/1172826678390919169 (Feed generated with FetchRSS) View the full article
  24. http://Whyy.org/episodes/gi. Great npr podcast on “gut feelings” @umichmedicine (Feed generated with FetchRSS)View the full article
  25. Related Articles Corrigendum to "The novel peripherally active cannabinoid type 1 and serotonin type 3 receptor agonist AM9405 inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces abdominal pain in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome" [Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2018), 836 34-43]. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 10;:172656 Authors: Salaga M, Binienda A, Tichkule RB, Thakur GA, Makriyannis A, Storr M, Fichna J PMID: 31519354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
  26. Related Articles Low FODMAP diet significantly improves IBS symptoms: an Irish retrospective cohort study. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Sep 13;: Authors: Nawawi KNM, Belov M, Goulding C Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the effects of this diet in Irish IBS cohort over a 12-month follow-up period, including after re-introduction of the high FODMAP foods. METHODS: All the tertiary referrals seen by an FODMAP-trained dietician were reviewed (2013-2016). Patients were evaluated for IBS symptoms by a questionnaire (four-point Likert scale). Subsequently, advice regarding the low FODMAP diet was given. Symptoms' response was assessed at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, by use of the same questionnaire. Re-introduction of high FODMAP foods was aimed to commence at the subsequent follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients were identified. Thirty-seven patients were excluded due to failure to attend for follow-up. Hundred and twenty-seven patients (77% patients, of which 85% were female) completed the initial 3-month follow-up. Forty-five percent (74/164) and twenty-five percent (41/164) of the patients had continued follow-up at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Of the 127 patients who returned for follow-up, their commonest baseline symptoms were lethargy (92%), bloating (91%), flatulence (91%), and abdominal pain (89%). All symptoms were significantly improved at the initial follow-up (p < 0.0001 for all). Most patients (66%) were satisfied with their overall symptoms control. In patients who had a longer follow-up duration, all symptoms remained significantly improved compared to the baseline (p < 0.0001 for combined symptoms at 6 and 12 months). After re-introduction of the high FODMAP foods, all patients maintained their symptomatic response (n = 14/14 and n = 7/7 at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively). The best symptoms' improvement was seen in those who were fully adherent to the FODMAP diet. CONCLUSION: In this Irish retrospective cohort study, the low FODMAP diet significantly improved all IBS symptoms at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Following the re-introduction of the high FODMAP foods in a subgroup of patients, they were able to maintain their long-term symptomatic response up to 9 months. The low FODMAP diet might be continued for longer than 3 months; however, further studies are needed to assess the long-term safety of this diet. PMID: 31520160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
  27. Serotonin exerts a direct modulatory role on bladder afferent firing in mice. J Physiol. 2019 Sep 14;: Authors: Konthapakdee N, Grundy L, O'Donnell T, Garcia-Caraballo S, Brierley SM, Grundy D, Daly DM Abstract KEY POINTS: Functional disorders (i.e., interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome) are associated with hyperexcitability of afferent nerves innervating the urinary tract and the bowel respectively. Various non-5-HT3 receptor mRNA transcripts are expressed in mouse urothelium and exert functional responses to 5-HT. Whilst 5-HT3 receptors were not detected in mouse urothelium, 5-HT3 receptors expressed on bladder sensory neurons plays a role in bladder afferent excitability under both normal conditions and in a mouse model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH). These data suggest that the role 5-HT3 receptors play in bladder afferent signaling warrants further study as a potential therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) is an excitatory mediator, which in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, plays a physiological role in gut-brain signaling and which is dysregulated in functional GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients suffering from IBS frequently suffer from urological symptoms characteristic of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, which manifests due to cross-sensitization of shared innervation pathways between the bladder and colon. However, a direct modulatory role of 5-HT in bladder afferent signaling and its role in colon-bladder neuronal crosstalk remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of 5-HT on bladder afferent signaling in normal mice and mice with chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) following trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis. Bladder afferent activity was recorded directly using ex vivo afferent nerve recordings. Expression of 14 5-HT receptor subtypes, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT producing enzymes were determined in the urothelium using RT-PCR. Retrograde labelling of bladder projecting dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was used to investigate expression of 5-HT3 receptors using single cell RT-PCR, while sensory neuronal and urothelial responses to 5-HT were determined by live cell calcium imaging. 5-HT elicited bladder afferent firing predominantly via 5-HT3 receptors expressed on afferent terminals. CVH animals showed a downregulation of SERT mRNA expression in urothelium, suggesting increased 5-HT bioavailability. Granisetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, reversed bladder afferent hypersensitivity in CVH mice. These data suggest 5-HT exerts a direct effect on bladder afferents to enhance signaling.5-HT3 antagonists could therefore be a potential therapeutic target to treat functional bladder and bowel disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31520534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
  28. Tegaserod for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2019 Sep 11;: Authors: Madia VN, Messore A, Saccoliti F, Tudino V, De Leo A, De Vita D, Bortolami M, Scipione L, Pindinello I, Costi R, Di Santo R Abstract BACKGROUND: Tegaserod (Zelnorm®) is a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 4 receptor agonist for the treatment of hypomotility disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract associated with the irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). OBJECTIVE: The authors provide the reader with a better understanding on tegaserod mechanism of action, on its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties, on safety and tolerability, with a summary of the key published clinical trials conducted in patients with IBS. Its effects on colon inflammation have also been described. RESULTS: Tegaserod was withdrawn in 2007 due to increased risks of cardiovascular adverse effects. The manufacturer denied this, because pre-existing cardiovascular disease or risk factors were attributed to all affected patients. Thus, no causal relationship between tegaserod use and cardiovascular events was clearly shown. A matched case-control study of tegaserod-treated with untreated patients found no association between tegaserod and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Despite its adverse effects, tegaserod resulted to be effective in treating chronic constipation in adult women aged < 65 years with IBS-C, while the safety and effectiveness of tegaserod in men with IBS-C have not been established. Tegaserod was resubmitted to the Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for use in a low-risk population. Moreover, tegaserod has also been shown to improve symptoms, enhance gastric accommodation and significantly attenuate visceral pain arising from the colon in functional dyspepsia patients. Treatment with tegaserod seems also to exert a protective effect in inflamed colons, reducing the severity of colitis in animal models. PMID: 31518227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
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