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Pubmed-Study on the Role of Gastrointestinal Parasite in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients in a Tribal Region of India

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Cureus. 2022 Jun 19;14(6):e26091. doi: 10.7759/cureus.26091. eCollection 2022 Jun.


Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which abdominal pain is associated with a change in bowel habits. Gut inflammation might be one of the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, the cause of IBS is not clearly understood. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) is the onset of IBS after an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. While the exact pathophysiology of PI-IBS is not established, the mechanism might be an altered serotonin signaling activity, inflammation, malabsorption, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Various parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis have a possible role in the etiology of IBS. E ntamoeba histolytica is one of the predominant GI parasites in developing regions of the world, and the symptoms of non-dysenteric amebic colitis may mimic those of IBS, which makes them difficult to distinguish from each other. Our study will address the relationship between the different gastrointestinal protozoan parasites in IBS and the role of antiparasitic therapy in PI-IBS. This study also aimed to determine the prevalence of GI protozoan parasites in patients with IBS in a tribal region of India. Methods We conducted a descriptive facility-based cross-sectional study of patients presenting with IBS to Saheed Laxman Nayak Medical College and Hospital, Koraput, Odisha, from 2017 to 2021. We collected stool samples for histopathological analysis using direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration microscopy techniques if diarrhea persisted beyond the antidiarrheal therapy. The samples from IBS patients were compared against 80 healthy control patient stool samples. We used IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY,) to analyze the data. Results Our study included 120 patients with IBS, of whom 67 (56%) were infected with GI parasites. In the control group, 16 (20%) were infected with GI parasites, which was significantly fewer than the test group (p<0.001). Conclusion We found a widespread infestation with GI parasites in patients with diarrhea-predominate IBS. A parasitological stool test should be included in the diagnostic approach to IBS. Initiating early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the chance of post-infectious IBS.

PMID:35875298 | PMC:PMC9295901 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.26091

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