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Pubmed-Omics profiles of fecal and oral microbiota change in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea and symptom exacerbation

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J Gastroenterol. 2022 Jul 30. doi: 10.1007/s00535-022-01888-2. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of gut-brain interaction, including dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with salivary cortisol changes. However, the role of gastrointestinal microbiota during IBS symptom exacerbation remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the microbial species, gene transcripts, and chemical composition of fecal and oral samples are altered during the exacerbation of IBS symptoms.

METHODS: Fecal, salivary, and dental plaque samples were collected at baseline from 43 men with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) and 40 healthy control (HC) men. Samples in the IBS-D patients were also collected during symptom exacerbation. The composition of the fecal microbiota was determined by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene, RNA-based metatranscriptome, and metabolites in samples from HC and IBS patients with and without symptom exacerbation. Oral samples were also analyzed using omics approaches.

RESULTS: The fecal microbiota during IBS symptom exacerbation exhibited significant differences in the phylogenic pattern and short-chain fatty acid compared with fecal samples during defecation when symptoms were not exacerbated. Although there were no significant differences in the phylogenic pattern of fecal microbiota abundance between HCs and IBS-D patients, significant differences were detected in the expression patterns of bacterial transcriptomes related to butyrate production and neuroendocrine hormones, including tryptophan-serotonin-melatonin synthesis and glutamine/GABA. The composition of plaque microbiota was different between HC and IBS-D patients during normal defecation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that colonic host-microbial interactions are altered in IBS-D patients during exacerbation of symptoms. There were no overlaps between feces and oral microbiomes.

PMID:35908139 | DOI:10.1007/s00535-022-01888-2

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