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Pubmed-Gut Non-Bacterial Microbiota: Emerging Link to Irritable Bowel Syndrome


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Toxins (Basel). 2022 Aug 29;14(9):596. doi: 10.3390/toxins14090596.

ABSTRACT

As a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) significantly affects personal health and imposes a substantial economic burden on society, but the current understanding of its occurrence and treatment is still inadequate. Emerging evidence suggests that IBS is associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, but most studies focus on the bacteria and neglect other communities of the microbiota, including fungi, viruses, archaea, and other parasitic microorganisms. This review summarizes the latest findings that link the nonbacterial microbiota with IBS. IBS patients show less fungal and viral diversity but some alterations in mycobiome, virome, and archaeome, such as an increased abundance of Candida albicans. Moreover, fungi and methanogens can aid in diagnosis. Fungi are related to distinct IBS symptoms and induce immune responses, intestinal barrier disruption, and visceral hypersensitivity via specific receptors, cells, and metabolites. Novel therapeutic methods for IBS include fungicides, inhibitors targeting fungal pathogenic pathways, probiotic fungi, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Additionally, viruses, methanogens, and parasitic microorganisms are also involved in the pathophysiology and treatment. Therefore, the gut nonbacterial microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of IBS, which provides a novel perspective on the noninvasive diagnosis and precise treatment of this disease.

PMID:36136534 | DOI:10.3390/toxins14090596

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