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Pubmed-The role of the gut microbiome in paediatric irritable bowel syndrome

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AIMS Microbiol. 2022 Nov 22;8(4):454-469. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2022030. eCollection 2022.


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common and disabling condition in children. The pathophysiology of IBS is thought to be multifactorial but remains incompletely understood. There is growing evidence implicating the gut microbiome in IBS. Intestinal dysbiosis has been demonstrated in paediatric IBS cohorts; however, no uniform or consistent pattern has been identified. The exact mechanisms by which this dysbiosis contributes to IBS symptoms remain unknown. Available evidence suggests the imbalance produces a functional dysbiosis, with altered production of gases and metabolites that interact with the intestinal wall to cause symptoms, and enrichment or depletion of certain metabolic pathways. Additional hypothesised mechanisms include increased intestinal permeability, visceral hypersensitivity and altered gastrointestinal motility; however, these remain speculative in paediatric patients, with studies limited to animal models and adult populations. Interaction between dietary components and intestinal microbiota, particularly with fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), has drawn increasing attention. FODMAPs have been found to trigger and worsen IBS symptoms. This is thought to be related to products of their fermentation by a dysbiotic microbial population, although this remains to be proven. A low-FODMAP diet has shown promising success in ameliorating symptoms in some but not all patients. There remains much to be discovered about the role of the dysbiotic microbiome in paediatric IBS.

PMID:36694592 | PMC:PMC9834077 | DOI:10.3934/microbiol.2022030

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