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Pubmed-What Has Longitudinal 'Omics' Studies Taught Us about Irritable Bowel Syndrome? A Systematic Review

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Metabolites. 2023 Mar 28;13(4):484. doi: 10.3390/metabo13040484.


Irritable bowel syndrome is a prototypical disorder of the brain-gut-microbiome axis, although the underlying pathogenesis and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. With the recent advances in 'omics' technologies, studies have attempted to uncover IBS-specific variations in the host-microbiome profile and function. However, no biomarker has been identified to date. Given the high inter-individual and day-to-day variability of the gut microbiota, and a lack of agreement across the large number of microbiome studies, this review focused on omics studies that had sampling at more than one time point. A systematic literature search was performed using various combinations of the search terms "Irritable Bowel Syndrome" and "Omics" in the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library up to 1 December 2022. A total of 16 original studies were reviewed. These multi-omics studies have implicated Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus spp., and Bifidobacteria in IBS and treatment response, found altered metabolite profiles in serum, faecal, or urinary samples taken from IBS patients compared to the healthy controls, and revealed enrichment in the immune and inflammation-related pathways. They also demonstrated the possible therapeutic mechanisms of diet interventions, for example, synbiotics and low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol (FODMAP) diets on microbial metabolites. However, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies and no uniform characteristics of IBS-related gut microbiota. There is a need to further study these putative mechanisms and also ensure that they can be translated to therapeutic benefits for patients with IBS.

PMID:37110143 | DOI:10.3390/metabo13040484

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