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Twitter-Fall Events and Flavors for Low FODMAP Diet Followers - https://t.co/W68qyGLBiw via @KateScarlata_RD
Fall Events and Flavors for Low FODMAP Diet Followers - https://goo.gl/xhBhqt via @KateScarlata_RD (RSS generated with FetchRss) View the full article
Twitter-This free + downloadable "FODMAPs 101" handout provides a simple introduction to the low #FODMAP diet. https://t.co/d2rdNjy7l7
This free + downloadable "FODMAPs 101" handout provides a simple introduction to the low #FODMAP diet. http://www.katescarlata.com/fodmaps-101/ (RSS generated with FetchRss) View the full article
Google-Different diets, different effects on the microbiota, similar short-term symptom improvement but different sustained ...
Different diets, different effects on the microbiota, similar short-term symptom improvement but different sustained ... Gut Microbiota for Health (press release) Full coverage View the full article
Why Sugar-Free Candy Can Make Your Stomach Feel Horrible Refinery29 Full coverage View the full article
Pubmed-Overlap of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Functional Dyspepsia in the Clinical Setting: Prevalence and Risk Factors.
Overlap of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Functional Dyspepsia in the Clinical Setting: Prevalence and Risk Factors. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Oct 27;: Authors: von Wulffen M, Talley NJ, Hammer J, McMaster J, Rich G, Shah A, Koloski N, Kendall BJ, Jones M, Holtmann G Abstract BACKGROUND: According to Rome IV criteria, functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are distinct functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID); however, overlap of these conditions is common in population-based studies, but clinical data are lacking. AIMS: To determine the overlap of FD and IBS in the clinical setting and define risk factors for the overlap of FD/IBS. METHODS: A total of 1127 consecutive gastroenterology outpatients of a tertiary center were recruited and symptoms assessed with a standardized validated questionnaire. Patients without evidence for structural or biochemical abnormalities as a cause of symptoms were then categorized based upon the symptom pattern as having FD, IBS or FD/IBS overlap. Additionally, this categorization was compared with the clinical diagnosis documented in the integrated electronic medical records system. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients had a clinical diagnosis of a FGID. Based upon standardized assessment with a questionnaire, 64% of patients had FD/IBS overlap as compared to 23% based upon the routine clinical documentation. In patients with severe IBS or FD symptoms (defined as symptoms affecting quality of life), the likelihood of FD/IBS overlap was substantially increased (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.9-5.0) and (OR = 9.0; 95%CI 3.5-22.7), respectively. Thus, symptom severity for IBS- or FD symptoms were significantly higher for patients with FD/IBS overlap as compared to patients with FD or IBS alone (p all < 0.01). Age, gender and IBS-subtype were not associated with overlap. CONCLUSION: In the clinical setting, overlap of FD and IBS is the norm rather than the exception. FD/IBS overlap is associated with a more severe manifestation of a FGID. PMID: 30368683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
Pubmed-[Migraine prophylaxis with a probiotic. Results of an uncontrolled observational study with 1,020 patients].
Related Articles [Migraine prophylaxis with a probiotic. Results of an uncontrolled observational study with 1,020 patients]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2018 Nov;160(Suppl 5):16-21 Authors: Straube A, Müller H, Stiegelbauer V, Frauwallner A Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with migraine often also suffer from gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease. All these diseases share increased intestinal permeability ("leaky gut") and thus increased inflammatory activity. There is an increase in proinflammatoric cytokines in the serum, which in turn can trigger migraine attacks. Probiotics can have a positive effect on the intestinal epithelium and reduce inflammatory activity. A first uncontrolled, small study of 39 migraineurs showed a decrease in the rate of attacks under the daily intake of a probiotic. METHOD: In an uncontrolled observational study, the influence of a specially formulated multispecies probiotic on the frequency of migraine attacks and the intensity of migraine-associated complaints was recorded. The self-assessment of 1,020 patients was evaluated. RESULTS: Over the treatment period of 8 weeks, the number of headache days was reduced from 2 to 1.4 days per week. The headache intensity decreased from 5.1 to 2.1 points (0 = not present to 6 = very intensive). The migraine-associated complaints were reduced and the use of painkillers halved. All results were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: It can be suggested that this multispecies probiotic formulation has a positive influence on intensity and frequency of migraine attacks. However, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are required for further confirmation. PMID: 30367437 [PubMed - in process] View the full article
What causes opioid-induced constipation (OIC)? Medical News Today Full coverage View the full article
Twitter-Higher bifido in #microbiome means less gas and symptoms in lactose intolerance. Dr. Andrea Azcarate-Peril at #2018gutmicrobiome
Higher bifido in #microbiome means less gas and symptoms in lactose intolerance. Dr. Andrea Azcarate-Peril at #2018gutmicrobiome (RSS generated with FetchRss) View the full article
Twitter-Great lecture at #2018gutmicrobiome the new territory to study is the small intestine. @GabrielaGSLeite
Great lecture at #2018gutmicrobiome the new territory to study is the small intestine. @GabrielaGSLeite (RSS generated with FetchRss) View the full article
Related Articles The Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Gastrointestinal Disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2018 Mar;47(1):179-191 Authors: Floch MH Abstract With the advent of the scientific realization that the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract was more than the cells that exist in the body, the full importance of prebiotics and probiotics has come forth. The importance has been stressed and is available in the new textbook entitled, "The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implication for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis." There is enough evidence now published in the literature so that the scientific world now believes that prebiotics and probiotics are important in gastrointestinal disease. PMID: 29413011 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] View the full article
Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 Sep;14(9):536-538 Authors: Nguyen L PMID: 30364316 [PubMed] View the full article
Twitter-RT @my_ueg: The 5 key features to the positive diagnosis of #IBS are: clinical history, physical examination, Rome IV criteria, minimal (li…
RT @my_ueg: The 5 key features to the positive diagnosis of #IBS are: clinical history, physical examination, Rome IV criteria, minimal (li… (RSS generated with FetchRss) View the full article
Changes in bowel habits are often temporary and harmless. However, severe or long-lasting changes can indicate more serious health issues. Learn more here. View the full article
Pubmed-Linaclotide increases cecal pH, accelerates colonic transit, and increases colonic motility in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.
Related Articles Linaclotide increases cecal pH, accelerates colonic transit, and increases colonic motility in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Oct 23;:e13492 Authors: Farmer AD, Ruffle JK, Hobson AR Abstract BACKGROUND: Linaclotide is efficacious in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), yet relatively little is known regarding its effect on human gastrointestinal physiology. The primary aim of the study was to examine the effect of linaclotide on change in pH across the ileocecal junction (ICJ), a proposed measure of cecal fermentation, and its relationship to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in IBS-C. METHODS: A total of 13 participants with Rome III IBS-C underwent a standardized wireless motility capsule (WMC). Stool consistency was measured using the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) and frequency with spontaneous bowel movements (SBM). Gastrointestinal symptoms and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires. The WMC and questionnaires were repeated after 28 days of linaclotide 290 g po od. KEY RESULTS: Linaclotide reduced the change in pH across the ICJ (-2.4 ± 0.2 vs -2.1 ± 0.4, P = 0.01) as a function of a relative alkalinization of the cecum (5.2 ± 0.2 vs 5.5 ± 0.3, P = 0.02). Linaclotide accelerated colonic transit time (2650 minutes (2171-4038) vs. 1757 (112-3011), P = 0.02), increased colonic log motility index (15 ± 1.8 vs. 16.5 ± 1.8, P = 0.004) but had no effect of gastric emptying or small bowel transit. Change in pH across the ICJ correlated with improvement in symptom intensity, unpleasantness, and visceral sensitivity index (r = 0.62, P = 0.03, r = 0.63, P = 0.02, r = 0.62, P = 0.02) and with increases in BSFS type and SBM (r = 0.9, P < 0.0001, r = 0.6, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Linaclotide's effects are confined to the colon where it increases cecal pH, potentially representing a reduction in cecal fermentation and accelerates colonic motility. PMID: 30353623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Depression: A Shared Pathogenesis. Cureus. 2018 Aug 21;10(8):e3178 Authors: Mudyanadzo TA, Hauzaree C, Yerokhina O, Architha NN, Ashqar HM Abstract It is common knowledge that dysfunction of the immune and neuroendocrine systems, in addition to neuroplasticity, is among the pathways that underlie irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and depression. From as early as the 1950s, the association of IBS with psychiatric disease was postulated; however, the exact mechanism remains elusive. There has been considerable research into the association of IBS and depression over the last years; research into the gut-brain axis and alterations in gut microbes have gained momentum to spell out the relationship between depression and IBS. Evidence from these researchers indicate the dysfunction of homeostatic coping mechanisms; corticotropin-releasing factor appears to be at the core of this dysfunction. The multifactorial etiology of both depression and IBS hinders a universal, one-strategy-fits-all treatment approach to patients with comorbid depression and IBS. This review analyzes the pathophysiology that associates these two conditions; it explores the bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract, and how these influence the endocrine and immune systems. Review articles, clinical trials and randomized controlled trials that analyzed the association of depression and IBS were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and articles in PMC databases. Full texts written in English and available via these search engines were selected for the synthesis of this review. Alterations to the gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota, and the neuro-immune system may be the cornerstone to the association of IBS and depression. This literature review opens alternate therapeutic approaches to comorbid IBS and depression and encourages further research into this topic. PMID: 30357038 [PubMed] View the full article
Nitric Oxide in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Opportunities for Drug Development. Br J Pharmacol. 2018 Oct 24;: Authors: Wallace JL Abstract Nitric oxide plays important roles in gastrointestinal mucosal defence, as well as in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease). The potent cytoprotective effects of nitric oxide have been demonstrated in a range of animal models. However, in some disease states, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis is beneficial. Several attempts have been made to develop drugs for ulcerative and/or inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, with varying degrees of success. Covalently linking a nitric oxide-releasing group to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or to drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome have shown some benefit, though no drug of this type has yet been fully developed. PMID: 30357812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
Pubmed-5-HT3 receptor signaling in serotonin transporter knockout rats: a female sex specific animal model of visceral hypersensitivity.
5-HT3 receptor signaling in serotonin transporter knockout rats: a female sex specific animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Oct 25;: Authors: El-Ayache N, Galligan JJ Abstract The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal motor and visceral sensation disorder that is more common in women than men. Female serotonin transporter (SERT) gene knockout (KO) rats exhibit hypersensitivity to colorectal balloon distention (CRD) that mimics colonic hypersensitivity occurring in female IBS patients. Alosetron, (5-HT3 receptor antagonist), is used to treat diarrhea-predominant IBS in female patients. Other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are ineffective in treating IBS symptoms. The visceromotor response (VMR) to CRD in SERT KO and wild type (WT) rats was measured following subcutaneous (s.c.), intracerobroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) treatment with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and an agonist. Alosetron (s.c.) and granisetron (antagonists) caused a paradoxical increase in the VMR to CRD in SERT KO female rats. Alosetron (s.c.) increased the VMR to CRD in WT male rats. Alosetron (i.t.) increased the VMR to CRD in SERT KO female rats only and the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, SR 52772, increased the VMR to CRD in SERT KO male rats. Depletion of spinal 5-HT using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine prevented the increase in VMR to CRD in SERT KO female and male rats treated i.t. with alosetron and SR 52772, respectively. Alosetron (i.c.v.) did not affect the VMR to CRD in WT or KO female rats but it increased the VMR in male SERT KO but not WT male rats. These data suggest that 5-HT3 receptor signaling at the dorsal spinal cord mediates visceral hypersensitivity in female SERT KO rats. Such differences could facilitate development of sex-specific drug treatments for visceral pain. PMID: 30359082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
Pubmed-Potential role of fecal volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of chemically induced intestinal inflammation in mice.
Potential role of fecal volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of chemically induced intestinal inflammation in mice. FASEB J. 2018 Oct 25;:fj201800076RR Authors: Reade S, Williams JM, Aggio R, Duckworth CA, Mahalhal A, Hough R, Pritchard DM, Probert CS Abstract Metabolomics studies have the potential to discover biomarkers. Fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found to differ in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Murine models of colitis offer an alternative to human studies in which diet can be controlled. We aimed to investigate fecal VOCs from mice in which acute and chronic colitis was induced. Groups of adult C57BL/6 mice underwent treatment with oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Control mice received no treatment or had acute osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium sulfate. Colitis was assessed clinically and by histology. Samples of feces and/or colon contents were collected and volatile compounds determined by solid phase microextraction-GC-MS. Statistics were performed using metabolomics tools. Acute colitis was associated with an increase in aldehydes and chronic colitis with one specific ketone. Osmotic diarrhea was associated with a significant reduction in VOCs, especially alcohols. We provide evidence that the identification of disease-associated VOC concentration ranges, combined with specific marker compounds, would potentially increase the likelihood of finding an inflammatory bowel disease-specific fecal VOC marker profile.-Reade, S., Williams, J. M., Aggio, R., Duckworth, C. A., Mahalhal, A., Hough, R., Pritchard, D. M., Probert, C. S., Potential role of fecal volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of chemically induced intestinal inflammation in mice. PMID: 30359099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
Local delivery of macromolecules to treat diseases associated with the colon. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2018 Oct 22;: Authors: Bak A, Ashford M, Brayden DJ Abstract Current treatments for intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and colonic bacterial infections are typically small molecule oral dosage forms designed for systemic delivery. The intestinal permeability hurdle to achieve systemic delivery from oral formulations of macromolecules is challenging, but this drawback can be advantageous if an intestinal region is associated with the disease. There are some promising formulation approaches to release peptides, proteins, antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, RNA, and probiotics in the colon to enable local delivery and efficacy. We briefly review colonic physiology in relation to the main colon-associated diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infection, and colorectal cancer), along with the impact of colon physiology on dosage form design of macromolecules. We then assess formulation strategies designed to achieve colonic delivery of small molecules and concluded that they can also be applied some extent to macromolecules. We describe examples of formulation strategies in preclinical research aimed at colonic delivery of macromolecules to achieve high local concentration in the lumen, epithelial-, or sub-epithelial tissue, depending on the target, but with the benefit of reduced systemic exposure and toxicity. Finally, the industrial challenges in developing macromolecule formulations for colon-associated diseases are presented, along with a framework for selecting appropriate delivery technologies. PMID: 30359631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article
An update on gastrointestinal disturbances in eating disorders. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018 Oct 22;: Authors: Hetterich L, Mack I, Giel KE, Zipfel S, Stengel A Abstract Eating disorders, namely anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are frequent diseases and often complicated by comorbidities, e.g. psychiatric or cardiovascular comorbidities. It is to note that also gastrointestinal symptoms/complications are frequently observed in patients with eating disorders. These diseases will be presented in the current review along with - where known - possible underlying mechanisms. Lastly, gaps in knowledge will be highlighted. PMID: 30359760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] View the full article